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Brief Chronology of Impressionism

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1791 In Paris, the Salon exhibits works by members of the French Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture. Although originally open to all artists, the advent of a jury to organize the exhibition led to a process of selection. The Salon’s jury became an outlet for a narrow circle of officially approved artists. After a change in 1864, only previous winners of medals in the Salon could sit on the jury, which later led to conservatism and prejudice against the Impressionist movement.
1830 Camille Pissarro is born in St. Thomas, West Indies.
1832 Edouard Manet is born in Paris.
1834 Edgar Degas is born to a rich banker and Creole mother.
1839 Paul Cézanne is born in Aix-en-Provence and Alfred Sisley is born in Paris.
1840 Claude Monet is born in Paris.
1841 Berthe Morisot is born, Pierre-Auguste Renoir is born in Limoges and Armand Guillaumin is born in Paris.
1848 Paul Gauguin is born in Paris.
1853 Vincent van Gogh is born in a small village near Antwerp.
1858 Pissarro attends the Académie Suisse and meets Monet; in Le Havre Monet meets Eugène Boudin, who encourages him in his painting.
1862 Manet comes into an inheritance; he paints La Musique aux Tuileries and meets Degas, who is beginning to paint race scenes at Longchamp. In Paris Cézanne fails the Ecole des Beaux-Arts entrance exam. Monet is working in Le Havre.
1863 Manet exhibits at Martinet’s gallery in Paris. Cézanne studies at the Académie Suisse in Paris; Monet works in the forest of Fontainebleau, and Morisot works at Pontoise. On Jan.15 the Salon des Refusés opens, a special exhibition of works refused by the Salon of 1863. It contains works by Manet, Cézanne, Pissarro, Guillaumin, and James A. M. Whistler.
1865 Manet’s second exhibition at Martinet’s is well received, but Olympia at the Salon arouses a storm. Pissarro, Renoir and Morisot are well received at the Salon. Monet shares a studio with Frédéric Bazille.
1869 Café Guerbois becomes the favorite center of the Impressionists. Monet becomes a regular at the café. Pissarro works at Bougival with Renoir, who has one work accepted by the Salon.
1873 Manet’s Bon Bock is well received at the Salon, and he meets Stéphane Mallarmé, a passionate literary proponent of Impressionism. One of Degas’ pastels is bought by the American Mrs. Havemeyer. Pissarro's pictures fetch fairly high prices at auction. Monet, now working in Argenteuil, takes up the plan first suggested in 1867 for a group Impressionist exhibition. Renoir enters art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel’s stable, meets Guillaumin, and has a considerable success at the Exposition des Refusés.
1874 The first Impressionist exhibition is held in Paris. Durand-Ruel stages an Impressionist exhibition in his London gallery. Manet starts to reap the benefits of his friendship with Mallarmé, who protests the Salon’s rejection of Manet’s paintings. Refusing to participate in the Impressionist exhibition, Manet works at Argenteuil with Monet; Renoir soon joins them. Pissarro insists on Cézanne’s participation and, though he sells one of the works he shows, Cézanne arouses derision with his Modern Olympia. Morisot, who exhibits nine works, spends part of the year with the Manet family at Fécamp and marries Eugène, Edouard Manet’s brother.
1876 The second Impressionist exhibition is held in Paris, with 20 participants. Degas exhibits 24 works. He also loses momst of his personal fortune by bailing his brother out of financial difficulties. Renoir’s fortune looks good as a result of meeting George Charpentier, a patron of art and literature. Mallarmé publishes a flattering article about Manet.
1877 The third Impressionist exhibition in Paris has 18 participants. Degas invites the American Mary Cassatt to join the group. Pissarro and Cézanne leave L’Union, a group started by Pissarro and Alfred Meyer. Monet, still in dire straits, exhibits 30 paintings, Renoir 17 and Morisot 19. Georges Rivière edits L’Impressionniste, a periodical defending Impressionism, during the run of the exhibition.
1879 The fourth Impressionist exhibition in Paris has 15 participants. Manet exhibits two works at the official Salon, though the exhibition is savaged by art critic Joris-Karl Huysmans; all of Cézanne’s entries are rejected. Pissarro invites Gauguin to submit to the group exhibition, and he shows one sculpture and seven paintings.
1880 Fifth exhibition in Paris, which includes 18 participants. Manet’s Execution of the Emperor Maximilian is exhibited successfully in the U.S. and he has a one-man exhibition of pastels at La Vie Moderne in Paris; his health deteriorates.
1881 Sixth exhibition in Paris; 13 participants. Manet, now seriously ill, is awarded the Legion of Honour. Pissarro is working in Pontoise with Gauguin and Cézanne, who at the end of the year returns to Aix.
1882 Seventh exhibition in Paris; nine participants. Manet shows Le Bar aux Folies-Bergère at the Salon.
1883 Manet dies on April 30. Durand-Ruel arranges a series of one-man exhibitions in his new gallery: Monet in March, Renoir in April, Pissarro in May, Sisley in June.
1886 Final exhibition in Paris; 17 participants. Durand-Ruel has successful American exhibition.
1890 Vincent van Gogh dies at Auvers-sur-Oise.
1895 Berthe Morisot dies.
1899 Alfred Sisley dies.
1903 Paul Gauguin dies at Atuana, Marquesas Islands.
1906 Paul Cézanne dies.
1917 Edgar Degas dies.
1919 Pierre-Auguste Renoir dies.
1926 Claude Monet dies at Giverny.
1927 Armand Guillaumin dies.

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